This is the default action. You can add or remove changes from the Git staging area to apply with a --amend commit. To meld several consecutive commits into one, leave the first one marked pick and mark the remaining ones with squash. Rewriting the most recent commit message You can change the most recent commit message using the git commit --amend command. Undo with: git rm --cached application. Here's an alias that using a couple of nifty git features makes it one command analogous to commit --amend.
If you have included sensitive information in a commit message, force pushing a commit with an amended commit may not remove the original commit from GitHub. Changing already published commits is awkward, of course, since it would cause others to lose history they already have; Git will warn people pulling from you of that, and you might not even be allowed to push such changes to a shared repository. You haven't lost a thing! After doing this commit you have realized that , few files have been missed that was also supposed to go in the same commit or you just want to change the commit message only. If you do not need to edit the message, you could use the -C option. Although we described it in terms of a linear history, git commit --amend works with merge commits as well; then there are multiple parents and branches involved instead of just one, but it operates analogously.
For a git beginner, it isn't obvious what the difference is between the last two options --soft and the one above it. The commits are gone, but the contents are still on disk. This creates the freedom to make and correct errors and refine your work, while still maintaining a clean, linear project history. For example: error: could not apply fcff9f72. It's important to note that the reflog only provides a safety net if changes have been committed to your local repository and that it only tracks movements of the repositories branch tip.
This is because they have never been saved in your repository. Be sure to only do this when you're sure you don't need these changes anymore. Then reapply your changes from a saved copy. Method 3: Undo the commit and completely remove all changes The following method will undo the commit and revert all changes so that your state is exactly as it was before you started making changes. Therefore, you should make sure you have checked out the correct branch before starting to play with them. There are several ways to handle the issue, we use the safest here.
Reflog allows you to go back to commits even though they are not referenced by any branch or tag. No, --amend adds the content of the index to the newly created commit. Then just do git commit to commit as a regular commit. Usage git reflog This displays the reflog for the local repository. However, the command doesn't delete any commits. You can use git reset --hard or git clean, but be careful not to accidentally remove other untracked files or revert other working tree changes you may have. Then we make an interactive rebase git rebase -i with --autosquash.
This should undo your changes. Changing the Last Commit: git commit --amend The git commit --amend command is a convenient way to modify the most recent commit. One more thing: Suppose you destroy a commit as in the first example, but then discover you needed it after all? How can I undo the last commit? This includes letting you define exactly what your project history looks like; however, it also creates the potential of losing commits. If it turns out that you accidentally moved back, the reflog will contain the commit master pointed to 0254ea7 before you accidentally dropped 2 commits. Unlike squash, fixup commits will not interrupt rebase playback to open an editor to combine commit messages. Avoid amending a commit that other developers have based their work on.
Note Discarding uncommitted changes cannot be undone. It will not abort if you just leave the directions as you found them, but the result will be the same in this simple case, since Git will find it does not need to remake any commits in order to follow the directions which say to use each commit as-is with pick. Word of warning: Careless use of git reset is a good way to get your working copy into a confusing state. If you force push, people who have already cloned your repository will have to manually fix their local history. You can achieve the same by using git commit with amend.
When discarding more than one commit, some further options to git reset become useful: --mixed The default: makes the index match the given commit, but does not change the working files. But what if you want to correct a older commit? Thus, the effect of this command is to move the branch back one commit, discarding the latest one but you can still recover it via reflog, as before. It will respect your index, so you can use git add. You can also add a co-author by adding a trailer to the commit. Be cautious when using --amend on commits shared with other team members.
We promise to laugh at you if you fail to take a backup and regret it later. This provides a safety net in case the history was accidentally changed. Any changes to tracked files in the working tree since the previous commit are discarded. It just makes it look as if they hadn't existed and removes them from the history. This still requires replacing the last commit, since the message text is part of the commit; the new commit will just have the same content point to the same tree as the previous one.